Hydrothermal energy is the heat (thermal energy) stored in the accessible part of the earth's crust; it can come from
the interior of the earth or (for example in frosty soil) have been brought in throughprecipitation or meltwater and is
one of the regenerative energies that can be extracted and used by geothermal heat exchangers.

Geothermal energy can be used both for heating, for cooling (see also ice storage heat pumps), for generating electricity or
in the combined power-heat coupling. Heat "temporarily stored" in an earth buffer storage tank is not counted as geothermal energy.

The vertical heat transport through mantle convection ends under the earth's crust. From there, most of the heat is transported
by conduction, which requires a much higher temperature gradient than in the mantle, inthecontinental crust often in the order
of 30 K / km, see geothermal depth. The local heat flux density results together with the thermal conductivity. This is on average
around 65 mW / m² in the continent and 101 mW / m² in the ocean, globally averaged 87 mW / m², which results in
a globally integrated heat output of around 44 terawatts.

That is only about twice the global energy demand, which means that the use of geothermalenergy on a large scale always results
in local cooling of the rock.






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